The Law Blog of DiPasquale Law Group
Thursday, October 23, 2014
Brooklyn Bar Challenges Cabaret License Law
In 1926, New York City enacted the Cabaret Law. This law is meant to regulate nightlife activities in bars, restaurants and other establishments. The legislation has undergone many challenges and has been amended since, but it still not a popular law. Even Michael Bloomberg tried to change the law during his term as Mayor. In a 1988 case, the portion of the law prohibiting live music was found to be unconstitutional. While the portion of the law prohibiting dancing has been challenged, it still stands. Now the main effect of the law is essentially to prohibit dancing in any establishment without a City issued cabaret license.
In order to obtain a cabaret license an establishment must meet certain surveillance and security requirements and appear before their local community board. They are then asked to pay a fee, sometimes as much as $1,000, for a license that lasts two years.
Now, the owner of Muchmore’s a bar in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, is challenging the law again in Federal court. The bar has live music almost every evening but does not have a cabaret license so customers are not permitted to dance. Owner, Andrew Muchmore, is claiming that the law is unconstitutional as it is violates Fourteenth Amendment due process and runs counter to the First Amendment freedom of expression provision of the United States Constitution.
As the City really does not enforce it (collecting only $350 in fines in 2012) and most applications for licenses are approved, the law is seen by many as a moot regulation still in place only to make the owners of establishments jump through hoops, sometimes at a great expense. While the New York City Department of Consumer Affairs maintains the position that the purpose of the license is safety, they also admit that they are looking at a number of laws, including the Cabaret Law, to see if they can be revised.
If you are a restaurant, bar or nightclub owner and are seeking a cabaret license, contact the New York restaurant lawyers at the DiPasquale Law Group by calling (646) 383-4607 for a consultation.
Thursday, October 09, 2014
Restaurant Workers Plagued With Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment is defined as unwanted sexual propositions, gestures and language and is a problem in almost every industry. The restaurant industry is particularly susceptible to these types of problems. This industry employs a large number of people, many of which are paid at or below minimum wage. Tipped workers are often paid a fraction of minimum wage as tips are supposed to make up the rest of their salary. Although many state minimum wage laws dictate payment above these levels, Federal minimum wage for untipped workers is $7.25 while for tipped workers it is $2.13.
There has been a push at the Federal and state level to raise the wages of tipped restaurant workers either by paying them the same as untipped workers or raising the minimum wage altogether. A new study, put out by the Restaurant Opportunities Center United and called "The Glass Floor: Sexual Harassment in the Restaurant Industry", has provided further inspiration for these legislative changes. The study, done this year, involved almost 700 restaurant workers from 39 states and shows that sexual harassment in the restaurant industry is occurring at a shocking rate. Many of the workers were from states where there was a gap in the minimum wage between tipped and untipped workers.
While females are affected by sexual harassment more frequently, men are also subjected to it. Tipped female workers were found to be harassed the most as they are required to do certain things that make them the targets of harassment by customers and other employees. The study showed that two-thirds of women in the restaurant industry were sexually harassed by their superiors while three quarters of them were harassed by other employees on a monthly basis. It also showed that one-third of women were harassed by customers on a weekly basis. High numbers of men and women were sexually harassed by their higher-ups, but, women working for the Federal minimum wage of $2.13 per hour were harassed almost two times as much as those receiving the $7.25 hourly rate.
If you are a restaurant owner or operator and are having issues with sexual harassment at your establishment, you should consult with an experienced attorney today. Contact the New York restaurant lawyers at the DiPasquale Law Group by calling (646) 383-4607.
Thursday, September 25, 2014
Wage and Hour Lawsuit Brought Against Famous New York City Restaurant
Wage and hour issues are common in the restaurant business. With the complexity of the wage and overtime laws and spotty enforcement, many restaurant owners do not even know they are committing a violation. There has been an explosion of wage and hour stories covered by news outlets in recent years. Due to the enhanced awareness of wage and hour laws, there has been an increase in labor and employment lawsuits focusing on these issues, especially by those in the restaurant business. An example is a recently filed suit against a famous upscale New York City restaurant.
Le Cirque restaurant caters to royalty, politicians and celebrities of every caliber. With sky-high prices and white glove service, allegations of cheating employees out of wages may come as a surprise to some. Former employee, Elvis Pena, claims he worked in various positions at Le Cirque including runner, bus boy and waiter and that during this time, he was not paid minimum wage. Although he worked well over 40 hours a week, Pena claims that the restaurant did not pay him overtime wages. He also asserts that he was forced to pool his tips with other employees and share these tips with captains, who are considered management, in violation of state and Federal labor laws.
Pena has filed a class action suit against the restaurant and its owner, Marco Maccioni, in a Federal court in New York City. His attorney has stated that over 100 former and current employees of Le Cirque may be able to join the lawsuit as plaintiffs. For now, Pena is seeking monetary damages.
It is unfortunate, but many restaurant owners have to deal with wage and hour lawsuits during their careers. As the labor laws change, it is important to stay apprised of updates to ensure compliance with the newest regulations. If you have been accused of a wage and hour violation or would like to discuss compliance with a qualified restaurant law attorney, contact the DiPasquale Law Group by calling (646) 383-4607.
Thursday, September 18, 2014
Changes to the Way NYS Restaurant Workers Are Paid May Be On The Way
Restaurant workers are paid in a number of different ways. Usually, employees that do not have the opportunity to make tips, such as managers, hostesses and kitchen staff, are paid a salary or an hourly wage that is at or above the required state and Federal minimum wage. Those that do have the ability to make tips, such as servers, bartenders and sometimes bus boys, are paid at an hourly rate that is below minimum wage. The thought is that by collecting tips the workers will make at least the minimum wage if not surpassing it. If the employee does not make at least as much as they would if being paid minimum wage, the employer is required to make up the difference.
Now, New York State service workers might be getting a raise. Service workers include restaurant workers that make tips. Various groups, including labor unions and service worker organizations, are pushing for these parties to be paid at least minimum wage, even if they are tipped. They have submitted their pleas to state officials and it is now up to the state wage board to make a recommendation. Once the board makes a recommendation, the New York State Labor Commissioner is responsible for making a final decision, which is expected in February of 2015.
Over the next couple of years the New York State minimum wage will be increasing and will be at a rate of $9 an hour by the last months of 2015. There have been many local and nationwide efforts to raise state and Federal minimum wages over recent years but localities such as New York City have resisted.
What does this all mean for restaurant owners? Higher costs! The requirement that service workers be paid more coupled with the increase in state minimum wage could mean that many restaurants will have to operate with fewer employees who are working fewer hours. This will surely add to the struggle of owning a restaurant, especially in the extremely expensive New York City area.
The New York City based DiPasquale Law Group represents restaurant owner clients with employee wage and tip issues. Call us at (646) 383-4607 for a consultation today.
Saturday, September 13, 2014
Judge Finds For City in Suit Challenging Department of Health Inspections
The relatively new Department of Health restaurant inspection system has been the source of constant anxiety among restaurant owners in New York City. As a result, a group of restaurateurs has brought suit against the City in the Manhattan Supreme Court.
The group of almost 40 restaurant owners attacked the system in its entirety. They claimed that instead of making it better for restaurants in the City, being subject to the scheme has been bad for business in general. The penalty structure, which is widely accessible via the internet, designates fines ranging from $200-$1,000 for listed violations. The plaintiffs claimed that these fines are assessed arbitrarily and for the sole purpose of raising revenue. They also alleged that often times, due to the differing experience of inspectors, the fines that were originally assessed were then increased when the site was visited by an supervisor. The plaintiffs also claimed in their suit that the City Council overstepped their authority when passing parts of the charter legalizing the Department of Health regulations. They asserted that the provisions were unconstitutional as the City Council did not have the authority to pass them in the first place. The group also sought changes to the appeals process and $150 million in damages.
The City challenged the suit stating that they did not overstep their authority and that there was no problem with the fines and a Supreme Court Judge agreed. She found that provisions of the charter were not unconstitutional, using the recent overturn of the ban on large soft-drinks as an example. She also decided that there was no problem with supervisors increasing fines after inspections, as they are supposed to be better at finding violations, and that the fines were not excessive. The plaintiffs’ attorney stated that he would appeal the decision as the Department of Health inspection system has caused, and will continue to cause, “tremendous injustices” for restaurant owners.
If you are a restaurant owner and need representation with regard to compliance with the Department of Health, contact the DiPasquale Law Group. Call us at (646)383-4607 for a consultation today.
Friday, August 29, 2014
Boozy Brunch Might Lead to Loss of Liquor License
Earlier in the year, there was some controversy regarding the legality of the ever popular bottomless brunch in New York City. On Saturdays and Sundays a large number of New Yorkers attend all you can eat brunches that also include unlimited alcohol. Now, one NYC hot spot might be losing its liquor license due to problems resulting from its booze-filled brunch.
Pranna Restaurant on 28th and Madison offers a $45 brunch that includes unlimited alcoholic drinks such as mimosas and sangria. Residents of the area are claiming that this is causing a major problem in the neighborhood. They allege that the excessive drinking is resulting in customers leaving the restaurant belligerent or being escorted out because of severe intoxication. The patrons are unable to walk, throwing up and urinating in the street, lying down on the sidewalk, sitting in the street and fighting. Residents also say that the restaurant is creating excessive noise and the customers are littering in the area. Many of the complaints have been documented by residents using photographs and video recordings. Residents also claim that the restaurant is operating as a nightclub with a club atmosphere and cabaret girls. If Pranna was a nightclub this might not be such a big problem. But, the establishment is a restaurant is not authorized to operate as a nightclub.
The local community has had enough and a Community Board meeting was scheduled. The issue at hand was the renewal of Pranna’s liquor license and community members were given a chance to present their concerns. The Board decided to give the restaurant three months to clean up their act. If the situation is remedied during this time the establishment will be able to keep their liquor license. If the problems continue, their liquor license renewal will be denied and their license will be revoked. The restaurant owner presented a list of approximately 100 other NYC restaurants that offer a bottomless brunch but stated that he would do whatever it takes to keep his liquor license.
The DiPasquale Law Group has represented many NYC restaurants, bars and other establishments in applying for their liquor license as well as in the appeal of the denial or revocation of such. If you own an NYC establishment and are having an issue relating to your liquor license, call us at (646)383-4607 for a consultation today.
Tuesday, August 26, 2014
Seminar Reminder: Restaurant Management Bootcamp 2.0 - Legal Considerations when Opening a Bar or Restaurant
This Thursday August 28, 2014 from 5:30 to 7:30 p.m. I’ll be giving a seminar in the Restaurant Management Bootcamp 2.0 Series that is hosted by NYC Small Business Solutions. The Course Description is copied below:
Restaurant Management Bootcamp 2.0: Legal Considerations when Opening a Bar or Restaurant
An insider look at tips, tricks, and best practices to start your first restaurant in NYC, presented by Restaurant Attorney James D. DiPasquale. To start and run a successful restaurant you must understand many different legal considerations which make operating in New York City, particularly unique. Whether you are a new or existing restaurant owner, this special follow-up to the Restaurant Management Bootcamp class will help you gain a deeper understanding of all of the basic requirements to get your business up and running.
• Incorporating or forming a Limited Liability Company (pros/cons of each)
• Partnership Considerations (The legalities of dealing with your business partners and investors)
• Finding your restaurant space (Buying an existing restaurant vs. straight lease)
• Negotiating your Restaurant’s lease
• Liquor License overview
• General discussion on permits needed (food service/cabaret/sidewalk café, etc.)
To Register, click on the following link: https://www.eventbrite.com/e/restaurant-management-bootcamp-20-lower-manhattan-82814-registration-12727886451
Thursday, August 14, 2014
Katz Deli Copycat Case Settled
New York City restaurants are subject to intense competition. These businesses work hard to establish and maintain their good reputations. Why should anyone else benefit from that if they have not put the work in? This is at the heart of a recent lawsuit filed by Katz’s Delicatessen of Houston Street Inc.
The famed Katz’s Deli has been serving genuine Jewish food in New York City for over 125 years. The establishment is a landmark and has been featured in many movies and television shows. Earlier this year, Katz’s Deli decided to do something about a Florida restaurant that was operating under a very similar name. Katz’s Deli of Deerfield Beach, owned by Pump-A-Nickel Corp. Inc., is also selling Jewish foods, which makes it seem even more like the two restaurants are related in some way. In the spring, Katz’s Deli sent a cease and desist letter to Pump-A-Nickel which they claim was ignored. Katz’s Deli had no choice but to file a lawsuit against Pump-A-Nickel alleging trademark infringement and dilution (lessening the uniqueness of a trademark). They claimed that Pump-A-Nickel was trying to unlawfully capitalize on their famous reputation and that this resulted in at least $1 million dollars in damages. Katz’s Deli also argued that Pump-A-Nickel had engaged in cyber squatting by using the domain name Katzs-deli.com.
The parties came to an amicable resolution in a short amount of time. Just a few months after the lawsuit was filed the parties have signed a settlement agreement including that Pump-A-Nickel is prohibited from any behavior that might lead others to believe that the businesses are related and any behavior that might appropriate the reputation and goodwill of Katz’s Deli. Both parties signed the settlement agreement and no damages were assessed.
The DiPasquale Law Group has protected the rights of countless New York City restaurants in a variety of situations. If you are a restaurant owner or are attempting to open a restaurant and you feel your rights have been violated, call us at (646) 383-4607 for a consultation today.
Tuesday, July 29, 2014
High Rents Causing Chaos for NYC Restaurants
New York City retail rents have increased astronomically over the last decade or so. Many restaurateurs entered into 10 or 15 year leases when NYC was a different place with less trendy neighborhoods and much lower rents. Now, market rent has doubled or tripled and those restaurant owners with expiring leases are in a pickle.
The struggle is common one between lessors and landlords. Restaurateurs that signed a lease long ago have been benefiting from low rent for many years. Landlords have been losing out on market rent since rents started to skyrocket and are often waiting for the current lease to expire so that they can raise the rent. With rents in some neighborhoods reaching $5,000 per square foot, these increases are forcing many restaurants to move to less expensive neighborhoods or worse, close their doors. Even well known restaurants are falling victim.
Establishments as famous as Bobby Flay’s Mesa Grill have been forced to close. While others, such as the Union Square Café and Four Seasons might be in the same situation very soon.
But, is it the landlords fault? Some believe that the rental increases are the work of greedy landlords and that these property owners should realize that often times, a restaurant is responsible for making the neighborhood fashionable. Others can sympathize with property owners who want to make the most money and have the opportunity to do it in the thriving competition present in NYC.
With celebrity chefs struggling, it is nearly impossible for young entrepreneurs to start out in the NYC restaurant business. These young people are forced into the Brooklyn real estate market, which can be almost as tough. Some established restaurateurs have dealt with the rental problem by buying the property they hope to use for their restaurants. Unfortunately, this approach is not available to everyone and some organizations are therefore pushing for another solution to the problem.
If you are a restaurateur with an expiring lease, or are trying to enter the restaurant business and looking to negotiate a lease, it is in your best interest to hire an attorney experienced in these matters. The DiPasquale Law Group regularly practices in restaurant law and can help to get you into the property you want. Call us at (646)383-4607 for a consultation today.
Tuesday, June 24, 2014
Does Your Lease Contain a Demolition Clause - Why You Should Be Scared
If you have opened a new restaurant or bar in the last two years, you have likely noticed that New York City landlords are becoming steadfast in their demand that all new leases contain demolition clauses. Old office and residential buildings are potential redevelopment opportunities which landlords are no longer willing to overlook. Landlords, of course, want to maintain a steady income from the property while also maintaining their flexibility to terminate leases and/or relocate tenants if the need arises. If a landlord has redevelopment in mind, then a right to terminate existing leases so that demolition or substantial renovation can occur may be necessary. However, from a tenant's viewpoint, such a right, without limitation, can be less than satisfactory. Sometimes arriving at an appropriate middle ground can be impossible. Just ask Wylie Dufresne whose restaurant wd~50, is closing because the building is being torn down for renovation. Similarly, according to Eater NY, P.J. Clarke’s is in the middle of a $40 million dollar lawsuit with its landlord who is allegedly attempting to push them out so as to make room for Pastis. In short, tenants cannot overlook a landlord’s desire to evict them should an opportunity arise. For that reason, when negotiating a new lease, Tenants must consider things such as:
- Is there a restriction as to when the right to terminate can be exercised – e.g. after the 5th year;
- How is "substantial renovation" defined and what restrictions should be placed on it – e.g. 50% or more of the rentable area of the building in which the premises is situated, whether or not the premises are directly affected;
- What proof is required to support the bona fide nature of landlord’s intention to demolish or substantially renovate the building – e.g., architect’s plans, DOB permits, etc.;
- What advance notice should be required;
- Is there a payout or other form of compensation for the remaining value of the tenant's leasehold;
- Will the landlord pay for those costs associated with finding a new location for your restaurant or bar, including moving expenses and broker fees?
Landlords are not stopping at demolition, however. A related trend finding its way into lease agreements is the “sale provision” which essentially gives a landlord the right to terminate a lease if the landlord intends to sell the building. Such a provision will often require that there be an actual purchase agreement between the landlord and a potential buyer before the right to terminate kicks in. A tenant will want to ensure that any such agreement is "bona fide" and not merely an agreement between related parties entered into for ulterior motives. However, when the trigger for the exercise of the landlord's right of termination is an actual purchase agreement having been signed, the notice period is likely to be relatively short so that evictions, if necessary, can be accomplished on or before closing.
You might ask, “Why would a landlord want to terminate a lease agreement when selling their building since the income from the building is likely part of the attraction?” Depending on the type of building, the desire to terminate and provide vacant possession of some or all of the building may be desirable. If the property contains a number of underperforming tenants, the landlord may want the ability to terminate those tenancies on the basis that the new development will be more attractive without them.. With this in mind, when the lease is being negotiated a savvy tenant with sufficient bargaining strength might insist that any such termination be conditional upon the landlord terminating all other tenants (or at least a portion of them based on a specified percentage of other premises or within a defined area of the mall), making it more difficult for a landlord to discriminate among its tenants in the exercise of the termination right.
In short, an owner's desire to get the most out of its property is a natural instinct in the world of commercial real estate but the impact of these provisions can be devastating to a tenant’s business. Tenants need to be savvy in their lease negotiations to ensure the survival of their restaurant or bar for at-least, the duration of the lease.
Tuesday, June 24, 2014
Top 10 Considerations When Buying a Restaurant or Bar
1. Buying the Assets vs. Buying the Company
Buying a business can be structured as an asset sale or as the purchase of an ownership interest in the legal entity that owns the restaurant. There are critical differences between these two options which come into when dealing with the State Liquor Authority, Sales Tax Department and a myriad of vendors. Generally speaking, if you only buy the assets of a restaurant you will not be responsible for the prior owner’s liabilities unless you specifically agree to assume them. This is true with the exception of the prior owner’s sales tax liability, if any, for which you must obtain a waiver from the tax department.
Despite this, sometimes it is in your best interest to buy the company itself, even though the seller’s liabilities might remain. This is particularly true when you intend to apply for a liquor license in a difficult community in New York City. Only by reviewing all of the facts can you best determine how to structure your deal.
2. What Assets are Included
Every restaurant and bar has a myriad of assets, both tangible and intangible. Some assets are owned outright while others are frequently leased (e.g. dishwashers, soda machines, POS systems). Be sure to identify each and every asset you are acquiring in the purchase and which assets the Seller has no right to transfer. If the Seller is leasing equipment, does he/she expect you to assume his lease agreement and if so, what are the terms of the lease. No buyer wants to close on a purchase only to discover that the many of the assets have been removed from the restaurant because the seller was under a different impression as to what was being sold.
It is necessary to accurately value the assets or the company that you are buying. An unreasonably high purchase price lends itself to failure of your business. Unfortunately, both parties are emotionally invested when it comes to the purchase price, and often buyers are distracted by the allure of owning you’re their first restaurant or bar, that they overvalue what they purchasing. There are many formulas when valuing a business or its assets, but often that is skewed by the intangible mystic that comes with purchase of a restaurant or bar in New York City. In short, carefully review and analyze all available financial data (e.g. profit and loss statements, tax records) and speak to a knowledgeable restaurant broker who can discuss comparable sales in the area.
4. Seller Financing
A buyer’s purchase price can be paid in many ways, including the transfer of cash at closing, waiver of debt, property exchange, and in many cases, seller’ financing. The payment method can affect the total purchase price and have important tax consequences for you (and the seller). It is surprising just how often seller financing is overlooked. Seller financing can be as simple as an extension of credit to you through a promissory note or loan agreement, or as complex as an exchange of services in the continuing operation of the business (e.g. consulting services). In either scenario, the cash required to be paid by Buyer at closing is reduced.
5. Monitoring Period
Buying a restaurant’s assets or an ownership interest in a restaurant (regardless of the percentage), without performing a due diligence review of the seller is a recipe for disaster. How do you protect yourself? Consider the inclusion of monitoring period in your purchase agreement that will give you free and transparent access to seller’s business, cash flow, accounts receivable and company debts.
During this monitoring period you will be able to review the seller's books and records, inspect the restaurant and its assets, speak to key employees, speak with the local police precinct and community board about the seller’s license history, and generally, see what you can find out about the business from third parties. While you are not guaranteed to find every problem with the business, a monitoring period is certainly a good start.
6. Seller’s Warranty
Even with the monitoring period, you cannot be sure that you are getting all of the necessary information? Have you missed something? Or, worse, has the seller misrepresented pertinent details of the business? In New York, a seller has no legal obligation to tell you anything about its business. You have all heard the expression “Buyer Beware," well so long as the seller hasn’t actually lied to you, it’s your problem, not his, once you close on the deal. Once again, how do you protect yourself? Simple, have the seller make written representations in the purchase agreement pertaining to the assets, ownership, debts, etc. of the company. In doing so, you shift responsibility to the seller in that, if any representation or warranty is discovered to be false, you have a right to seek reimbursement from the seller for any damages you sustain. If you fail to obtain these representations, in writing in the purchase agreement, you will have no claim after you close.
Determining which representations and warranties to include in the purchase agreement is not an easy task and is probably the one of the most negotiated points of a purchase agreement. Without these representations and warranties, you are left to blindly trust the seller and hope that what you think you are buying, is what you will actually get.
7. Conditions to Closing
Many times things happen which warrant the cancelation of a purchase agreement. For example, having one’s liquor license denied by the Community Board or the State Liquor Authority would spell disaster for a restaurant or bar. In short, things happen between the execution of a purchase agreement and closing that make it problematic to close. Other examples include: (a) denial of loan application, (b) loss of critical investor, (c) landlord refusal to accept lease assignment, (d) rejection of building plans by Landmarks or the DOB, etc.
If you fail to identify those conditions which permit you to cancel an agreement, you are liable to lose any down payment made under the terms of the agreement, but also you open yourself up to a lawsuit for damages or worse, being required to perform under the agreement.
8. Shady Sellers
Between the time you sign the purchase agreement and the time you close, the seller has ample opportunity to harm your purchase if they are so inclined. I frequently handle sales where the seller, in an effort to save money, reduces their customary inventory, fires key personnel, cuts utility services, refuses to pay suppliers and although infrequent, takes a loan out using the assets as collateral. If you are purchasing a business which you intend to continue operating without change, reductions such as these will undoubtedly alienate your customers, suppliers and employees. Moreover, if you haven’t identified what inventory or assets are being transferred, the loose definition of “all assets” is bound to be tested by the seller.
Alternatively, if you are buying an ownership interest in seller’s business (say 40% for $100,000) take steps to ensure that the seller is restricted from issuing any additional stock or equity in the company to other people without your permission. This is common where the buyer is intended to be a “silent investor”. If you are not careful, what you end up with may be very different from that which you thought you were buying.
If the seller has a good reputation in the community you might consider inserting a non-compete provision in your purchase agreement. Most buyers do not include non-compete provisions into their purchase agreements and my experience tells me that this is because of a prevailing notion that non-competes are unenforceable, but that is not accurate. Carefully constructed non-compete provisions are enforceable, especially when there is something unique to the skill, trade or business of the parties, or when a business is being purchased. Provided that the agreement is carefully tailored to confine the agreements terms (i.e. reasonable geographic limitations, duration, and independent value received for entering into the agreement), they are enforceable and may be the only thing standing in the way of seller challenging you on what is now your own turf.
10. UCC Liens on Assets Purchased
The last think you want to discover is that the assets you are buying are not actually owned by the seller, or that there is a lien on the assets by a third-party. Asset (UCC) liens are very common and can be verified by a simple background check at the State and Federal levels. The purpose of filing a UCC lien is to place all potential buyers of the assets on notice of a debt owed by the seller and secured by the seller’s assets. Failing to perform a UCC lien search is a great way to assume the seller’s debt up to the fair market value of the assets purchased.
The DiPasquale Law Group is a full service law firm that assists Restaurant and Nightclub Owners in all legal aspects of their business. Serving Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx in New York City. Attorney James DiPasquale, Principal.